Clearly, Turkey miscalculated on Libya, as Cook makes clear and as Yigal Schleifer argued here in WPR in late-March. And as Cook also demonstrates, the missteps cannot be reduced to defending Ankara's economic interests in the country. They were, in effect, errors in judgment. The inconsistencies regarding Syria are a bit more understandable, given the proximity and the very direct impact -- including potential refugee flows -- that any fallout there will have on Turkey. But they are just as glaring, given Turkey's rhetoric and the image it has promoted of itself.