The United States confronts two major foreign policy challenges: China, and the weak and restless. The alternatives for China are well known, and there is consensus about which of these is most attractive; Romney would not have followed a different course from the one that has been chosen by Obama. In contrast, there is no consensus on the severity of the challenges posed by the weak and the restless—poorly governed states with limited capacity and no sympathy for the United States or its policies. Nor is there consensus on the way in which these challenges should be addressed. Interests and the international distribution of power dictate our policy toward China. Uncertainties about threats and opportunities leave many more options open for policies toward the weak and the restless.